# What to do if there is missing data?

## What to do if there is missing data?

Best techniques to handle missing data

1. Use deletion methods to eliminate missing data. The deletion methods only work for certain datasets where participants have missing fields.
2. Use regression analysis to systematically eliminate data.
3. Data scientists can use data imputation techniques.

How do you compensate for missing data?

The following are common methods:

1. Mean imputation. Simply calculate the mean of the observed values for that variable for all individuals who are non-missing.
2. Substitution.
3. Hot deck imputation.
4. Cold deck imputation.
5. Regression imputation.
6. Stochastic regression imputation.
7. Interpolation and extrapolation.

What is it called when data is naturally missing?

There are four qualitatively distinct types of missing data. Missing data is either: structurally missing, missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random, or nonignorable (also known as missing not at random).

### What’s the state of missing data in statistics?

Missing Data: Our View of the State of the Art Joseph L. Schafer and John W. Graham Pennsylvania State University Statistical procedures for missing data have vastly improved, yet misconception and unsound practice still abound. The authors frame the missing-data problem, review methods, offer advice, and raise issues that remain unresolved.

How to deal with missing data in regression?

Dummy variable adjustment Create an indicator for missing value (1=value is missing for observation; 0=value is observed for observation) Impute missing values to a constant (such as the mean) Include missing indicator in regression Advantage: Uses all available information about missing observation Disadvantage: Results in biased estimates

How is missing data a problem in psychology?

Missing data are ubiquitous in quantitative research studies, and school psychology research is certainly not immune to the problem. Because of its pervasive nature, some methodologists have described missing data as “one of the most important statistical and design problems in research” (methodologist William Shadish, quoted in Azar, 2002, p. 70).

## How to prevent and handle the missing data?

Third, before the start of the participant enrollment, a training should be conducted to instruct all personnel related to the study on all aspects of the study, such as the participant enrollment, collection and entry of data, and implementation of the treatment or intervention [8].