# What does high spatial autocorrelation mean?

## What does high spatial autocorrelation mean?

Positive spatial autocorrelation means that geographically nearby values of a variable tend to be similar on a map: high values tend to be located near high values, medium values near medium values, and low values near low values. It has also been quantified to support spatial prediction.

## What is spatial autocorrelation example?

Positive Spatial Autocorrelation Example Positive spatial autocorrelation occurs when Moran’s I is close to +1. This means values cluster together. For example, elevation datasets have similar elevation values close to each other. This clustered pattern generates a Moran’s I of 0.60.

What is a high Moran’s I value?

If the values in the dataset tend to cluster spatially (high values cluster near other high values; low values cluster near other low values), the Moran’s Index will be positive. When high values repel other high values, and tend to be near low values, the Index will be negative.

### How do you find spatial autocorrelation?

Detecting autocorrelation Moran’s I is a parametric test while Mantel’s test is semi-parametric. Both will also indicate if your spatial autocorrelation is positive or negative and provide a p-value for the level of autocorrelation. Both test against the null that there is no spatial autocorrelation.

### How to calculate the decline in spatial autocorrelation?

Each semivariogram model describes the decline in spatial autocorrelation with increasing distance in terms of an intercept (nugget), a slope, and an implicit/explicit range of spatial dependency. For Adair County population density ( Fig. 1 ), ˆγ = 0.13 + 14.07 [1 − ( d /0.25) K1 ( d/0.25)].

When does a map show positive or negative autocorrelation?

The term spatial autocorrelation refers to the presence of systematic spatial variation in a mapped variable. Where adjacent observations have similar data values the map shows positive spatial autocorrelation. Where adjacent observations tend to have very contrasting values then the map shows negative spatial autocorrelation.

#### Which is an example of local autocorrelation?

Local autocorrelation focuses on deviations from the global trend at much more focused levels than the entire map, and it is the subject of the next chapter. We will explore these concepts with an applied example, interrogating the data about the presence, nature, and strength of global spatial autocorrelation.

#### Which is the best semivariogram for spatial autocorrelation?

The most popular ones are the spherical, the exponential, and the Gaussian; one that should increase in popularity is the Bessel function. The empirical semivariogram in Fig. 1 is best described by a Bessel function, K1, both before and after adjusting for the underlying distance decay trend.