What is metal oxide particles?

What is metal oxide particles?

They are usually large molecules with functional groups that can be chemically or physically adsorbed on the particle surface, such as polysaccharides, polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamides, silica, or gold layer onto the particle surface (Fig. 1.1). Fig. 1.1. Different ways of stabilization of iron oxide nanoparticles.

What is the structure of metal oxides?

The oxide crystal structure is based on a close-pack array of oxygen anions, with metal cations occupying interstitial sites. The close-packed arrays are usually face-centered-cubic and hexagonal-close packed. They both accommodate smaller metal cations in octahedral and tetrahedral interstices.

Which are metal oxide nanoparticles?

Metal oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have large surface area and exhibit chemical and thermal stability and antimicrobial properties. Therefore, ZnO nanoparticles are also used as efficient nanoadsorbents.

Where can we use metal oxide nanoparticles?

In technological applications, Metal Oxide Nanoparticles are used in the fabrication of microelectronic circuits, sensors, piezoelectric devices, fuel cells, coatings for the passivation of surfaces against corrosion, and as catalysts.

Are metal oxides toxic?

They are a class of engineered nanomaterials with widespread applications; their special properties of small size and large specific surface area endow them with high chemical reactivity and intrinsic toxicity. Metal oxide toxicity can also be induced by dissolved metal ions from the oxides.

What is an example of a metal oxide?

Metal oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2. Examples are carbon, iron, nitrogen (see nitrogen oxide), silicon, titanium, and aluminium.

What are metal oxides examples?

Is rust a metal oxide?

In the presence of oxygen and moisture or water, iron undergoes this reaction and form a series of iron oxide. This reddish-brown color compound is known as rust. Any metal that contains iron, including steel, will bond with the oxygen atoms found in water to form a layer of iron oxide, or rust.

What are metal oxide nanoparticles used for?

These metal oxide nanoparticles are chemically stable (have no adverse effects) and are used in a variety of different applications such as adsorption, photocatalytic activities, antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Are metal oxides harmful?

Toxicity of Metal Oxides Nanoparticles These properties are important for industry use. However, these properties of nanoparticles also induce biological influences including toxic activity. In vitro studies showed that the some nanoparticles induce oxidative stress, apoptosis, production of cytokines, and cell death.

Is copper oxide bad for health?

CuO-NP cytotoxicity was associated with significant increase at intracellular ROS level and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and lysosomal membrane leakiness. Hence, CuO-NPs are shown to effectively induce oxidative stress in addition to inflict damage on mitochondria and lysosomes in human blood lymphocytes.

How is aggregation of metal oxide particles avoided?

Aggregation of metal oxide particles is avoided by electrostatic stabilization and steric mechanisms of polymer electrolytes. Metal oxide particles are uniformly distributed on the polymer electrolyte. Polymer electrolytes enhancing the active surface area of the metal oxide particles.

What are the different types of metal oxide nanoparticles?

There are a few sorts of metal oxide nanoparticles, for example, ZnO, CuO, TiO2, MgO, NiO, ZrO2 nanoparticles etc.In the creating field of nanotechnology, an objective is to make nanoarrays or nanostructures with exceptional properties as for those of mass or single molecule classes.

Which is an example of a metal oxide?

Several of these applications are associated with the surface activity that many metal oxides exhibit, examples are adsorption (2), sensing, and catalysis (3). Among the surface-active metal oxides, aluminum (III) oxide, more often referred to as “alumina,” is particularly relevant.

How are metal oxide particles distributed on an electrolyte?

Metal oxide particles are uniformly distributed on the polymer electrolyte. Polymer electrolytes enhancing the active surface area of the metal oxide particles. Providing a pathway for proton conduction along with metal oxide. Increasing the effectiveness of the metal oxide by improving the adhesion to the electrode.