What is LPS in inflammation?

What is LPS in inflammation?

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the most abundant component within the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the release of interleukin 8 (IL-8, CXCL8, CXC ligand 8) and other inflammatory cytokines in various cell types, leading to an acute inflammatory response towards pathogens [1].

What is LPS in medical terms?

LPS is a structural component of a bacterial cell; it consists of long chains of sugar moieties (the polysaccharide part) that are covalently connected to lipids. In Gram-negative bacteria, LPS is anchored to the outer membrane via lipid A.

Does LPS cause inflammation?

LPS can also stimulate non-immune cells and initiate the inflammatory process. Exaggerated inflammatory responses are usually detrimental.

How does LPS induce inflammation?

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of Gram-negative bacteria cell walls and can cause an acute inflammatory response by triggering the release of a vast number of inflammatory cytokines in various cell types. LPS is widely recognized as a potent activator of monocytes/macrophages.

What does LPs stand for in medical category?

LPS Abbreviation for: levator palpebrae superioris lateral premotor system lipopolysaccharide liposarcomas Local Pharmaceutical Scheme local pharmaceutical services Lovastatin Pravastatin Study lumbar punctures lymphoproliferative syndrome

How is LPS-induced inflammation mediated in the Leydig cell?

Most evidence suggests that the effects of LPS-induced inflammation on the Leydig cell itself are mediated through exposure to increased levels of pro-inflammatory molecules that inhibit steroidogenesis, most notably IL1, TNF, NO, and other ROS, and PGE 2, as outlined earlier ( Figure 19.3 ).

How are cytokines involved in LPS-induced inflammation?

An increase in peripheral levels of cytokines from the circulation due to activation of macrophages and other immune cells in the blood and tissues may also be involved in inhibiting Leydig cell steroidogenesis during LPS-induced inflammation.

How is artemisinin used to treat LPS induced inflammation?

There have been reports about studies on artemisinin antagonizing LPS-induced inflammation, and artemisinin can inhibit the synthesis of inducible NO synthase and NF-κB activation [59].