What does a steam methane reformer cost?

What does a steam methane reformer cost?

Steam Reforming of Gas and Light Oils. Steam methane reforming (SMR) has high hydrogen yield efficiency (∼ 74%) and is estimated to produce hydrogen at a cost of around $1.8 kg− 1 (US DoE, 2015a).

What is a methane reformer used for?

Steam reforming or steam methane reforming is a method for producing syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) by reaction of hydrocarbons with water. Commonly natural gas is the feedstock. The main purpose of this technology is hydrogen production.

Is pressure swing adsorption expensive?

This study indicates that with current technology, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is more cost effective and reliable than metal membrane hydrogen purification. The higher costs of membrane units relative to PSA’s are not justified by the potential for better hydrogen recovery and smaller size.

How does a methane reformer work?

A methane reformer is a device based on steam reforming, autothermal reforming or partial oxidation and is a type of chemical synthesis which can produce pure hydrogen gas from methane using a catalyst. Most methods work by exposing methane to a catalyst (usually nickel) at high temperature and pressure.

Which is more efficient steam reforming or methane reforming?

Steam reforming of natural gas is approximately 65–75% efficient. Production of H 2 and CO from hydrocarbon gases (e.g. natural gas) is performed by two well-known “primary” and “secondary” reformers. Steam methane reforming (SMR) and autothermal reformer (ATR) are two industrial examples of the primary and secondary reformers, respectively.

How is methane mixed into the primary reformer?

The methane feed is first passed through a desulfurizer and then mixed with the steam feed. This mixed stream, the primary reformer inlet stream of Table 1, next passes through a heat exchanger where it is heated to a temperature of 600 C. From here the primary reformer inlet stream enters the primary reformer.

How is natural gas reforming used to produce hydrogen?

Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. This is an important technology pathway for near-term hydrogen production.

Why does heat duty increase on synthesis gas reformers?

To compensate for high methane slip the heat duty must be increased, thus increasing compression and energy costs. Higher pressures also cause the secondary reformer effluent temperature to decrease.