# What is self straining force?

## What is self straining force?

Discussion of self-straining loads is found in the lengthy description of the notation in ASCE 7 Chapter 2. It is: “Self-straining force arising from contraction or expansion resulting from environmental or operational temperature change, moisture change, creep in component…

**What are the different load combinations used as per IS code?**

Design Load Combinations

- Ak= load or load effect arising from extraordinary event A.
- D= dead load.
- Dt= weight of ice.
- E= Earthquake Load.
- H= lateral earth pressure load.
- L= live load.
- Lr= roof live load.
- R= rain load.

### What is ultimate wind speed?

Ultimate wind speed = 137 mph. Nominal wind speed = 105 mph. Design wind pressure W = 37.2 psf.

**How is VULT calculated?**

Basic wind speed is typically reported in ultimate load (Vult). This is a factored value that is reduced by the formula Vasd=Vult* sqrt(0.6). Vasd is the allowable design wind speed. Also important to note that there are different values for sustained vs 3 second gust winds as well as one minute fastest mile.

#### What do you mean by self straining force?

> > In ASCE 7-05, chapter 2 defines T as a “self-straining force.” I > > assume they are referring to forces induced by temperature changes. > > What other “self-straining forces” are there?

**Is the self straining force included in earthquake and wind load combinations?**

In ASCE 7-05, the self-straining force or temperature load (symbol T) was included only in load combination no. 2 of the LRFD and ASD combinations. It was not added to the earthquake and wind load combinations. In ASCE 7-10, ‘T’ is not directly included in any load combination.

## How is the rate of strain related to shear stress?

The form of the relation between shear stress and rate of strain depends on a ﬂuid, and most common ﬂuids obey Newton’s law of viscosity, which states that the shear stress is proportional to the strain rate: τ = µ dγ dt . Such ﬂuids are called Newtonianfluids.

**What is the self straining force in ASCE 7-05?**

R&S Tavares Associates Inc. and its client retain all proprietary rights they may have in the information. > > In ASCE 7-05, chapter 2 defines T as a “self-straining force.” I > > assume they are referring to forces induced by temperature changes.