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What causes osteopenia of prematurity?

What causes osteopenia of prematurity?

Most very premature infants have limited physical activity. This may also contribute to weak bones. Very premature babies lose much more phosphorus in their urine than do babies that are born full-term. A lack of vitamin D may also lead to osteopenia in infants.

What is osteopenia prematurity?

Osteopenia of prematurity is a metabolic bone disease of premature infants with birth weight < 1500 g and gestational age < 32 weeks. Sub-optimal bone matrix, poor skeletal support and an increased risk of fractures characterized the disease.

What is metabolic bone disease of prematurity?

Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) of prematurity is a multifactorial disorder commonly observed in very low birth weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) newborns, with a greater incidence in those extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1,000 g). MBD is characterized by biochemical and radiological findings related to bone demineralization.

What is metabolic bone disease?

Metabolic bone diseases are disorders of bone strength usually caused by abnormalities of minerals (such as calcium or phosphorus), vitamin D, bone mass or bone structure, with osteoporosis being the most common.

What does it mean to have osteopenia of prematurity?

Osteopenia of prematurity – also known as neonatal rickets, rickets of prematurity or neonatal metabolic bone disease – is a common and important concern in neonatology, and effective management is hindered by difficulties in accurately assessing calcium and phosphate status and the ‘quality’ of bone deposition.

Why are preterm infants at risk for bone disease?

It is well known that preterm infants are at risk of reduced bone mineral content (BMC) and subsequent bone disease and that many factors may contribute to this.

Is there a biochemical marker for osteopenia in infants?

Potentially, a biochemical marker that reflects an abnormal rise in bone activity due to either rapid growth or lack of minerals may help detect osteopenia in infants, but there is conflicting evidence as to whether ALP is such a marker. DEXA studies have concluded that there is no association between ALP levels and BMC.

How is the Carter method used to diagnose osteopenia?

In adults, the Carter method allows BMC of the lumbar spine to be separated into components of bone volume (BV) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). It does not account for the effects of body habitus on bone mass.