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What does the S100B protein do?

What does the S100B protein do?

The S100B is a calcium-binding peptide and is used as a parameter of glial activation and/or death in many disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). It plays important roles in normal CNS development and recovery after injury.

What is S100B protein serum?

Types S-100AB and S-100BB are described as S-100B protein and are shown to be highly specific for nervous tissue. At nanomolar levels, S-100B stimulates neurite outgrowth and enhances survival of neurons. However, at micromolar levels it stimulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and induces apoptosis.

What does S100B measure?

In the assessment of traumatic brain injury, S100B is the most widely investigated biomarker. A 21-kDa protein abundant in the central nervous system (CNS), S100B is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, with a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to serum ratio of 18:1.

What cells express S100B?

3.2 S100B. S100B is widely expressed in astrocytes, certain neuronal populations, Schwann cells, myeloid-derived cells, and a few other cell types. S100B is released in the extracellular space in response to glutamate,128 serotonin,129 TNF,130 IL-1β,131 beta-amyloid peptides,132 and lysophosphatidic acid.

What kind of cells contain the protein S100B?

S100b protein is a small Ca + 2 -binding protein and a member of the S100 family with main expression in astrocytes, Schwann cells, a small subset of oligodendrocytes, and a number of neuronal subpopulations ( Hachem et al., 2005; Gerlach et al., 2006 ).

Where does S100B come from in the body?

For example, mice lacking glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) showed altered synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and cerebellum, which is accompanied by impaired eye-blink conditioning. S100B is a Ca2+ -binding protein, which is secreted from astrocytes.

How many S100 proteins are there in the world?

S100 protein. The S100 proteins are a family of low-molecular-weight proteins found in vertebrates and characterized by two calcium -binding sites that have helix-loop-helix (” EF-hand type”) conformation. There are at least 21 different S100 proteins. They are encoded by a family of genes whose symbols use the S100 prefix,…

What does S100B stand for in a biomarker?

Over the last decade, S100B has emerged as a candidate peripheral biomarker of blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS injury. Elevated S100B levels accurately reflect the presence of neuropathological conditions including traumatic head injury or neurodegenerative diseases. Normal S100B levels reliably exclude major CNS pathology.