Users' questions

What is pathophysiology of myocardial infarction?

What is pathophysiology of myocardial infarction?

In the clinical context, myocardial infarction is usually due to thrombotic occlusion of a coronary vessel caused by rupture of a vulnerable plaque. Ischemia induces profound metabolic and ionic perturbations in the affected myocardium and causes rapid depression of systolic function.

What three pathophysiological ways can a myocardial infarction develop?

Type 1: Spontaneous MI caused by ischemia due to a primary coronary event (eg, plaque rupture, erosion, or fissuring; coronary dissection) Type 2: Ischemia due to increased oxygen demand (eg, hypertension), or decreased supply (eg, coronary artery spasm or embolism, arrhythmia, hypotension)

What are the pathophysiological findings specifying an MI?

The symptoms of acute myocardial infarction (MI) are chest pain, which may radiate to the arm or jaw, sweating, nausea, and chest tightness or pressure. The diagnosis rests on laboratory findings of myocardial necrosis, which causes leakage of myocardial enzymes, such as troponin, into the circulating blood.

What is the prognosis for myocardial infarction?

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with a 30% mortality rate; about 50% of the deaths occur prior to arrival at the hospital. An additional 5-10% of survivors die within the first year after their myocardial infarction.

What are the complications of myocardial infarction?

There are three major mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction (MI): rupture of the left ventricular free wall; rupture of the interventricular septum ; and the development of mitral regurgitation.

What are the types of myocardial infarction?

Myocardial infarction has been classified into types 1 to 5 of which type 4 has subtypes a and b. Type 1 is spontaneous myocardial infarction due to a primary coronary event like plaque rupture. Type 2 is secondary to a supply demand mismatch as in coronary vasospasm, anemia or hypotension .

How is myocardial infarction pain described?

Chest pain is the most common symptom of acute myocardial infarction and is often described as a sensation of tightness, pressure, or squeezing . Pain radiates most often to the left arm, but may also radiate to the lower jaw, neck, right arm, back, and upper abdomen .