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What role do CCR5 and CXCR4 play on the T cell?

What role do CCR5 and CXCR4 play on the T cell?

Chemokine receptors play an important role during the early events of HIV-1 infection of CD4+ cells. CXCR4 is the fusogenic receptor that promotes entry of T-tropic HIV-1 strains, while CCR5 allows entry of M-tropic HIV-1 strains (13–20).

What is the function of CCR5?

CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) which regulates trafficking and effector functions of memory/effector T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and immature dendritic cells.

Where are CCR5 and CXCR4 found?

HIV. HIV-1 most commonly uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4 as co-receptors to enter target immunological cells. These receptors are located on the surface of host immune cells whereby they provide a method of entry for the HIV-1 virus to infect the cell.

What does CXCR4 bind to?

HIV/AIDS Glossary A protein on the surface of certain immune system cells, including CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4 cells). CXCR4 can act as a coreceptor (a second receptor binding site) for HIV when the virus enters a host cell.

How are the coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 regulated?

The HIV coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are differentially expressed and regulated on human T lymphocytes. The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 function as coreceptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4 + cells. During the early stages of HIV infection, viral isolates tend to use CCR5 for viral entry, while later isolates tend to use CXCR4.

What’s the difference between CCR5 and CXCR4?

HIV virus uses CD4 cell as the primary receptor for entry into human cells. In addition, CCR5 and CXCR4 are two types of predominant chemokine receptors used as coreceptors in HIV-1 entry. Therefore, the expression of these coreceptors is critical for determining viral tropism.

How are CXCR4 and CCR5 related to AIDS?

During the early stages of HIV infection, viral isolates tend to use CCR5 for viral entry, while later isolates tend to use CXCR4. The pattern of expression of these chemokine receptors on T cell subsets and their regulation has important implications for AIDS pathogenesis and lymphocyte recirculation.

What is the function of the chemokine receptor CXCR4?

The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 function as coreceptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4 + cells. During the early stages of HIV infection, viral isolates tend to use CCR5 for viral entry, while later isolates tend to use CXCR4.