# What is the difference between function and procedure in SAS?

## What is the difference between function and procedure in SAS?

FUNCTIONS vs. The fundamental difference between functions and procedures is that a function expects the argument values to supplied across an observation in a SAS data set. Procedures expects one variable value per observation.

## What is lag function in SAS?

In SAS, the LAG function is used to compare the current value to its predecessors. If you want to calculate lag of second order, use LAG2 function. Similarly, you can use LAG3 function for measuring lag of third order.

**What are the functions does SAS performs?**

40 Most Common SAS Statements, Functions and Procedures

- DATA Step. Function: to create SAS data sets.
- PROC Step. Function: to perform data manipulation, statistical analysis and report / graph production.
- Libname Statement.
- Input and Datalines statement.
- Filename statement.
- Infile statement.
- Set statement.
- If-then statement.

**What is the opposite of lag function in SAS?**

Though there are some tasks for which SAS does not have functions readily available for use. One such task is to read next record while working on the current record and at the first thought one can imagine an exact opposite processing of data to LAG function, which can be named as LEAD function.

### What are the SAS functions?

Following are the various SAS built-in character functions used to manipulate string values: UPCASE: It converts all the letters of string into the upper case. LOWCASE: It converts all the letters of string into the lower case. PROPCASE: It converts each first letter of the string into the upper case. REVERSE: It is used to reverse the string letters. SCAN: It returns the string value of a particular index.

### What is the main difference between SAS and SQL?

SQL has its roots in the world of relational databases whereas SAS was developed to manage and analyze “flat” files. For all intents and purposes, the following elements of the two languages are equivalent:

**Where clause SAS?**

The WHERE clause in SAS/IML. In SAS procedures, the WHERE clause is a useful way to filter observations so that the procedure receives only a subset of the data to analyze. The IML procedure supports the WHERE clause in two separate statements.

**What is index function in SAS?**

The INDEX function in SAS. By definition, the INDEX function will search a character string for a specified string of characters. If a match is found, the INDEX function returns the position of the first occurrence of the string’s first character, when searched from left to right.