Is the electron transport chain in the mitochondrial cristae?

Is the electron transport chain in the mitochondrial cristae?

The mitochondrial cristae are where electrons are passed through the electron transport chain, which pumps protons to power the production of energy molecules called ATP. NADH and FADH2 are molecules that carry electrons. The folds in this inner membrane are called the cristae.

What is electron transport through mitochondrial membrane proteins?

During electron transport, the participating protein complexes push protons from the matrix out to the intermembrane space. At the inner mitochondrial membrane, a high energy electron is passed along an electron transport chain. The energy released pumps hydrogen out of the matrix space.

What causes mitochondrial swelling?

During ischemia, calcium handling between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofilament is disrupted and calcium is diverted to the mitochondria causing swelling. Reperfusion, while essential for survival, reactivates energy transduction and contractility and causes the release of ROS and additional ionic imbalance.

What is mitochondrial outer membrane permeability?

Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), also known as the mitochondrial outer membrane permeability, is one of two ways apoptosis (programmed cell death) can be activated. It is part of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, also known as the mitochondrial pathway.

Why does the electron transport chain occur in the inner mitochondrial membrane?

The electron transport chain is a series of electron transporters embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane that shuttles electrons from NADH and FADH2 to molecular oxygen. In the process, protons are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, and oxygen is reduced to form water.

Why does mitochondria have 2 membranes?

The inner membrane folds over many times and creates layered structures called cristae. The folding of the inner membrane increases the surface area inside the organelle. Since many of the chemical reactions happen on the inner membrane, the increased surface area creates more space for reactions to occur.

What is the difference between electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation?

Oxidative phosphorylation is a process involving a flow of electrons through the electron transport chain, a series of proteins and electron carriers within the mitochondrial membrane. This flow of electrons allows the electron transport chain to pump protons to one side of the mitochondrial membrane.

Why does calcium induce mitochondrial swelling?

In energized mitochondria, the mitochondrial membrane potential creates the driving force for calcium to accumulate in the mitochondrial matrix. The accumulation and growth of these complexes induces mitochondrial swelling that leads to outer membrane rupture, inner membrane fragmentation and cyt.

Is swelling of mitochondria reversible?

Severe disruption of mitochondrial function is generally considered to provide a powerful trigger for apoptosis in mammalian cells. We report here that intact cells may undergo the mitochondrial permeability transition and mitochondria swell in a fully reversible manner, without inducing cell death.

What can pass through the outer mitochondrial membrane?

The mitochondrion is an organelle encompassed by two membranes (Figure 1). The high permeability of the outer membrane is mediated by VDAC, which is the most common protein in the outer membrane and is permeable to molecules of up to 5000 daltons in its open configuration.

Can NADH pass through the outer mitochondrial membrane?

NADH cannot penetrate mitochondrial membranes, and regeneration of NAD+ in the cytoplasm depends on the activities of the LDH reaction and a shuttle system that transfers reducing equivalents to mitochondria.

What does the electron transport chain produce?

The electron transport chain is a series of four protein complexes that couple redox reactions, creating an electrochemical gradient that leads to the creation of ATP in a complete system named oxidative phosphorylation. It occurs in mitochondria in both cellular respiration and photosynthesis.

Where is electron transport chain found in mitochondria?

This energy is used to form electrochemical gradient across mitochondrial membrane. In eukaryotes, many copies of the electron transport chain molecules are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

How is the transmembrane structure connected to the inner membrane?

Each is an extremely complex transmembrane structure that is embedded in the inner membrane. Three of them are proton pumps. The structures are electrically connected by lipid-soluble electron carriers and water-soluble electron carriers. The overall electron transport chain:

How is the electron transport chain in the thylakoid membrane?

Photosynthetic electron transport chain of the thylakoid membrane. The electron transport chain ( ETC) is a series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons

What are the complexes in the electron transport chain?

• The series of oxidation-reduction reactions requires four membrane-bound multi-protein complexes called complexes I, II, III and IV. • Each complex consist of multiple proteins and Fe-S, heme or copper prosthetic groups. • Complexes I, III and IV are also proton pumps • Complex II consists of succinate dehydrogenase, the enzyme of the TCA cycle.