What is the mechanism of chlorination?

What is the mechanism of chlorination?

The chain mechanism is as follows, using the chlorination of methane as a typical example: 1. Initiation: Splitting or homolysis of a chlorine molecule to form two chlorine atoms, initiated by ultraviolet radiation or sunlight. A chlorine atom has an unpaired electron and acts as a free radical.

What is meant by chlorination reaction?

Illustrated Glossary of Organic Chemistry – Chlorination. Chlorination: Any reaction or process in which chlorine (and no other elements) are introduced into a molecule. Chlorination of a benzene ring by electrophilic aromatic substitution.

What is an example of chlorination?

Aromatic compounds have been chlorinated in good yield under mild conditions using a mixture of tin tetrachloride and lead tetraacetate in dichloromethane <1996T8863>. For example, toluene gave a 45:55 ratio of 4-chlorotoluene and 2-chlorotoluene in 80% yield.

What does pyridine do in a reaction?

Pyridine is a reasonable nucleophile for carbonyl groups and is often used as a catalyst in acylation reactions. The nitrogen atom in pyridine is nucleophilic because the lone pair of electrons on nitrogen cannot be delocalised around the ring.

What kind of reaction is pyridine condensation reaction?

Chichibabin synthesis The Chichibabin pyridine synthesis was reported in 1924 and is still in use in industry. In its general form, the reaction can be described as a condensation reaction of aldehydes, ketones, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, or any combination of the above, in ammonia or ammonia derivatives.

How are pyridine ligands used in coordination chemistry?

Ligand and Lewis baseEdit. Pyridine is widely used as a ligand in coordination chemistry, as are its derivative 2,2′- bipyridine, consisting of two pyridine molecules joined by a single bond, and terpyridine, a molecule of three pyridine rings linked together. When a pyridine ligand is part of a metal complex,…

What is the melting point of pyridinium chloride?

Density: 1.34 g/cm 3: Melting point: 144 °C (291 °F; 417 K) Boiling point: Decomposes

How is pyridinium used in a chemical reaction?

Pyridinium. As pyridine is often used as an organic base in chemical reactions, pyridinium salts are produced in many acid-base reactions. Its salts are often insoluble in the organic solvent, so precipitation of the pyridinium leaving group complex is an indication of the progress of the reaction.