What does microtubule polymerization do?

What does microtubule polymerization do?

Polymerization dynamics allow microtubules to adopt spatial arrangements that can change rapidly in response to cellular needs and, in some cases, to per- form mechanical work. Microtubules utilize the energy of GTP hydrolysis to fuel a unique polymerization mechanism termed dynamic instability.

What does microtubule depolymerization interfere with?

Microtubule depolymerization impairs intracellular trafficking. A549 cells were treated with DMSO (0.1%), nocodazole (1 µM), CAS 879127-08 (1 µM), or PD153035 (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor, 1 µM) for 1 h.

How does Taxol inhibit microtubule depolymerization?

Taxol has been predicted to strengthen both longitudinal and lateral interdimer interactions thereby stabilizing microtubules (11). D2O itself stabilizes tubulin against denaturation (12), prevents dilution-induced depolymerization of microtubules, and suppresses their dynamicity (13).

Which drug inhibits microtubule depolymerization?

Paclitaxel is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug most often used in breast, lung, and ovarian cancer, and AIDS-related sarcomas. As a microtubule inhibitor, paclitaxel acts to stabilize polymerized microtubules during mitosis, thus leading to cell cycle arrest in the G2 and M phases.

What is microtubule dynamic instability?

Dynamic instability refers to the coexistence of assembly and disassembly at the ends of a microtubule. The microtubule can dynamically switch between growing and shrinking phases in this region. Tubulin dimers can bind two molecules of GTP , one of which can be hydrolyzed subsequent to assembly.

What are Microtubules made of?

Microtubules are biopolymers that are composed of subunits made from an abundant globular cytoplasmic protein known as tubulin, as illustrated in Figure 1.

What is the structure of microtubules?

Microtubules are microscopic hollow tubes made of the proteins alpha and beta tubulin that are part of a cell’s cytoskeleton, a network of protein filaments that extends throughout the cell, gives the cell shape, and keeps its organelles in place. Microtubules are the largest structures in the cytoskeleton at about 24 nanometers thick.